Ilicic, J. and Webster, C.M. They are divided into teams led by established singers who act as coaches. The final sample of this study was 236 people. Celebrity endorsement, self-brand connection and consumer-based brand equity. 45 No. In line with Alba and Hutchinson (1987); Aaker (1991, 1997); Kowalczyk and Royne (2013) and Luo et al. Keel, A. and Nataraajan, R. (2012), “Celebrity endorsements and beyond: new avenues for celebrity branding”, Psychology & Marketing, Vol. According to the results, the celebrity endorsement influences not only the assessment of the candidate in the program but also the intention to consume future work (music and television shows) by this candidate. A study on the celebrity endorsement on perception and buying behavior reference to Udumalpet.International Journal of Research in IT and Management, 2(2), 37-42. On Marketing Contributor. A larger JAR archive is accessible at WARC, alongside case studies, best practice guides, marketing intelligence, consumer insight, industry trends and latest news from around the world. Traditionally, the concept of celebrity can be understood as a person who is recognized by the public and considered to be a role model for society (McCracken, 1989), due to his or her professional competence or beauty (Kahle and Homer, 1985). 4 No. At all times, the association between participant and celebrity is presented to the public. 22, pp. JAR is published four times a year for the Advertising Research Foundation by WARC. Demographic data from the respondents were collected. Um, N.-H. (2013), “Celebrity scandal fallout: how attribution style can protect the sponsor”, Psychology & Marketing, Vol. The findings of this study are similar to those found by Silva et al. 1, pp. Study 2 analyzes the brand and charisma effects, Study 3 analyzes the congruence between celebrities and Study 4 analyzes the exposure level of the endorser celebrity. On the other hand, previous studies already showed that stronger candidates may have already established their image, thereby moderating the overexposure effect of his or her coach. This happens for both evaluation in the program and intention to consume the candidate’s products, demonstrating the effectiveness of the endorsement and its greater importance in cases in which the new celebrity has not yet established a strong image. 19-29. R., Homer, P. M. (1985), Physical attractiveness of the celebrity endorser: A social adaptation perspective, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. Abstract. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Examining the impact of brand transgressions on consumers’ perceptions of celebrity endorsers, Human brands: investigating antecedents to consumer’s strong attachments to celebrities, Endorsers in advertising: the case of negative celebrity information, The effects of multiple product endorsements by celebrities on consumer attitudes and intentions, Celebrity scandal fallout: how attribution style can protect the sponsor, Areas of research in political advertising: a review and research agenda, An examination of the celebrity endorsements and online customer reviews influence female consumers’ shopping behavior, Nonprofit advertising: impact of celebrity connection, involvement and gender on source credibility and intention to volunteer time or donate money, Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, Building brand identity in competitive markets, Celebrity endorsement, brand credibility and brand equity, https://doi.org/10.1108/RAUSP-04-2018-011, http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode, http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/celebrity-advertising-what-is-the-roi/. Celebrity Endorsement can have an impact on the world of advertising, depending on the personality and popularity of the celebrity. There was no difference in the evaluation of the weak participant (worst evaluated) concerning the congruence level with the endorser celebrity. As a result, the number of aspiring celebrities has grown (Keel and Nataraajan, 2012). Their assets, as in the case of product brands, can be built through recognition and remembrance, positive associations, perceived quality in the relationship and loyalty level generated by the relationship. In addition to this positive assessment, such an endorsement makes these consumers more likely to show loyalty to the brand or product. Celebrities have been involved in endorsing various activities since the eighteenth century. Researchers found that much of this effect results from consumers’ associations between the celebrity and the endorsed object (Choi and Rifon, 2012; Till and Shimp, 1998). Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (3), 310. doi:10.1086/209217 Muda, M., Musa, R., Mohamed, R. N., & Borhan, H. (2014). Luo, L., Chen, X., Han, J. and Park, C.W. 21 No. Ambroise, L., Pantin-Sohier, G., Valette-Florence, P. and Albert, N. (2014), “From endorsement to celebrity co-branding: personality transfer”, Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 544-569. 740-759. Celebrity Endorsement And Its Impact On Sales: A Research Analysis Carried Out In India. and Fowler, K. (2015), “Examining the impact of brand transgressions on consumers’ perceptions of celebrity endorsers”, Journal of Advertising, Vol. 11 No. In all studies of this research project, the first section of the instrument presented stimuli for manipulation. If brands can have human characteristics, it can be inferred that people can be brands and that these dimensions would be prominent. 291-314. Another result of this study relates to brand influence on the evaluation, based on the understanding of the aspiring celebrity as brand (Kowalczyk and Royne, 2013; Luo et al., 2010). 29 No. © 2018, Otávio Freire, Filipe Quevedo-Silva, Diego Senise and Pedro Scrivano. Journal of Marketing Management: Vol. 19 No. 651-662. Also, participants in the overexposed celebrity condition perceived more over-exposure when compared to the participants in the not overexposed condition [MCelebrity Overexposed = 4.6 (1.8) and MCelebrity Not Overexposed = 3.4 (1.7); p < 0.01]. 209-234. 1, pp. When choosing a celebrity to endorse another, it is necessary to emphasize the possible associations between them for the public, and constantly monitor the reputation of the celebrity vis-à-vis consumers and ensure that there is no overexposure of the celebrity, as the effect of the endorsement will be less effective if the same celebrity endorses several aspirants to a new celebrity. 13 No. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. As in Study 1, spectators first answered questions about their involvement with the program, and people who did not watch or did not know the participants were excluded from the study. Another common fact within the historical context in risk strategy is the loss of relevance that celebrities can suffer with the media after the endorsement contract has been signed (Luo et al., 2010). H1: As compared with non-celebrity endorsements or no Congruence depends on two dimensions: relevance and expectation. 2, pp. The Importance of Perceived Endorser Credibility in South Korean Advertising. 34 No. (2015), where the brand factor – in this case, the candidate’s own image – moderates the celebrity endorsement effect. 6, pp. 954-961. In a sense, celebrity endorsement strategy can be a two-edged sword, which makes selecting a celebrity endorser from innumerable altematives in the presence of potential pitfalls very challenging. 9, pp. 18, No. They may even damage a brand, if consumers learn that an existing endorser has committed a transgression (Um, 2013). For data analysis, we used ANOVA. Celebrity choice should be guided by the congruence that he or she has with the product endorsed. The manipulation check confirmed that Sam Alves is perceived as a stronger candidate than Gabby Moura (MSam Alves = 5.5 (1.4) and MGabby Moura = 4.4 (1.6); p < 0.01). In line with recent research propositions for this area (Knoll and Matthes, 2017), to analyze the effectiveness of the endorsement and verify the existence of the effect (Study 1), studies were conducted focusing on contextual variables with the potential to modify effect. The economic worth of celebrity endorsers: an event study analysis, From endorsement to celebrity co-branding: personality transfer, Exploring the relationship between celebrity endorser effects and advertising effectiveness. For example, in Study 2, the endorser’s charisma (celebrity character) did not change the endorsee’s evaluation. Celebrities can inspire consumers’ desires, hopes and dreams (Rockwell and Giles, 2009). 4, pp. In order to ease this challenge, this paper explores the celebrity endorsement literature. Study 2 demonstrated two effects. Manipulation check confirmed that Sam Alves is perceived as stronger than Gabby Moura [MSam Alves = 5.5 (1.6) and = MGabby Morua 4.5 (1.6); p < 0.01], and that participants in the congruent scenario evaluated the celebrity as more congruent with the candidate than participants in the incongruent setting [MCongruent Endorser = 4.9 (2.1) and MIncongruent Endorser = 3.9 (2.0); p < 0.01]. Huston, C.R., D’ouville, E. and Willis, T.H. As for the strongest candidate, the assessment was the same regardless of the level of exposure of the endorser celebrity used. This was revealed both in the assessment of the aspiring celebrity’s performance on the reality show The Voice Brazil, and in the reported intention to purchase the work of this future celebrity (music recordings and shows), confirming the effect of the endorsement. 1, pp. Thus, knowing how to manage their career from the very beginning can be decisive to guarantee both longer and profitable careers. Van Steenburg, E. (2015), “Areas of research in political advertising: a review and research agenda”, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 27 No. 1, pp. This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Consequently, it influences his conduct and decision-making toward the promoted product or brand (Khatri, 2006). Consumers generally perceive and react to stimuli generated by people just as they do in relation to brands. (2003), “Race and gender effects on consumer identification of products with celebrities endorsers”, The Marketing Management Journal, Vol. Music labels and other companies of this type can use this information to develop strategies to leverage new artists in partnerships with their established artists. 39-48. Jump to navigation Jump to search. 9, pp. 16 No. However, in examining the effect of the endorsement on the weak candidate, it is perceived that the evaluation rises to the same level as the other candidate when the endorsing celebrity is evaluated positively. In a reality show, candidates are aspiring celebrities and are also building their images and their brands (Keel and Nataraajan, 2012), some with more ownership and competence than others. 5, pp. Wei, P.S. McNamara, K. (2009), “Publicizing private lives: celebrities, image control and the reconfiguration of public space”, Social and Cultural Geography, Vol. ABSTRACT: Celebrity endorsement is a widely used tactic in marketing and a useful way of pushing a product in crowded markets, much research has been done on the selection and effect of celebrity endorsement. The results of the study show that the weakest candidate was better evaluated when the celebrity endorser was not perceived as overexposed. 377-390. 4, pp. The instrument was similar to that used in Study 1. 35 No. The profile should be tested in other substantive areas, such as new media and social media (Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, YouTube, etc. Published in RAUSP Management Journal. The stimulus was presented and spectators assessed the candidate through a series of questions, using the same scales as previous studies. Alba, J.W. Several factors are considered when choosing a celebrity endorser or brand sponsor, when attempting to establish a campaign for the brand: fame – wide recognition by consumers or by specific groups; adjustment – combination or match between brand attributes and celebrity attributes regarding consumer perceptions; financial features – costs and returns from the use of celebrities as endorsers; and. (1997), “Dimensions of brand personality”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 2, pp. Marketers consider the featuring of celebrities in ads a magnet that attracts consumers to the brand through glamor. (1990), “Celebrity spokesperson and brand congruence, an assessment of recall and affect”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. To check celebrity influence on candidates, the participants of this study also evaluated the celebrity. 178-210. Dr Vipul Jain Abstract : The practice of celebrities being used for rendering services other than performing their actual job as either an actor or an athlete, such as endorsements has proliferated over time. 437-441. Along with the lack of studies noted by Knoll and Matthes (2017), there has been another global phenomenon related to endorsement and celebrity theory as a whole. Freire, O., Quevedo-Silva, F., Senise, D. and Scrivano, P. (2018), "The effectiveness of celebrity endorsement in aspiring new celebrities: Examining the effects of brand, congruence, charisma and overexposure", RAUSP Management Journal, Vol. Therefore, knowing that the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement effect may vary completely depending on the context of the endorsement, and given the phenomenon of new celebrities emerging from different media, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of an “acclaimed” celebrity endorsement effect in a context where an aspiring new celebrity is being endorsed. 4, pp. Four studies involving 664 respondents were conducted to analyze the effectiveness of the endorsement. 3, pp. The results show that the effect of celebrity endorsement can also occur in a context where the evaluated object is a person aspiring to be a future celebrity. Celebrity endorsement research questionnaire is very useful for gathering the essential feedback through different sources to finalize a most popular celebrity. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 24 (5), pp.449-461. 19 No. (2010), “Dilution and enhancement of celebrity brands through sequential movie releases”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. The authors demonstrated that the differences found in the studies may have occurred due to moderating variables, such as the endorser type (Wei and Lu, 2013), congruence (Silva et al., 2015) or endorser sex (Bergkvist and Zhou, 2016). This research contributes to the knowledge of celebrity endorsement to fill the lack pointed out in previous studies in the field over the effectiveness of this effect and, above all, the moderator variables that can influence or even annul this effect. Celebrity Endorsement is viewed as a billion dollar industry in today’s era. 29 No. 364-371. A quantitative synthesis of effect size”, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. On the other hand, if an aspiring celebrity … 70 No. Kaikati, J.G. 57-78. When choosing a celebrity endorser, it is advisable for consumers to perceive a fit between new celebrity and celebrity. The stimulus was presented, and participants assessed the candidates on the same scales as previous studies. 2, pp. Purpose of the paper: the paper aims to investigate the effect that the celebrity fit (ie the consonance between the brand and the celebrity used in advertising in support of that brand) may have on consumer loyalty towards a brand protagonist of an extension strategy. 529-541. This result is interesting and contributes to studies about brand (Silva et al., 2015), and in particular those focused on the possible effects of the brand on endorsers (Thomas and Fowler, 2015). To give greater validity to the study, all studies were conducted during season two of the program The Voice Brazil, in which candidates compete for the preference of the public while seeking successful careers in the music industry. Brands can also reflect human dimensions of personality, based on the evaluation of consumers (Aaker, 1997). (2011), “Celebrity endorsement, brand credibility and brand equity”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 3, pp. 34 No. 29 No. 36 No. Celebrity endorsement is always a two-edged sword and it Kim, Y. and Na, J. 13-23. A quantitative synthesis of effect size, The situational impact of brand image beliefs, Celebrity endorsements: a literature review and research agenda, For better, for worse? Agrawal, J. and Kamakura, W.A. 12 No. 642-663. By transferring the positive image and characteristics of a celebrity onto the brand, marketers aim to trigger consumers’ intent to purchase or use the endorsed product or service (Atkin and Block 1983). These contrasting results demonstrate how celebrity endorsement is complex and can be influenced by several variables. We used the same scales as Study 1 for candidates’ assessment, and an adapted attitude scale (α = 0.986) to evaluate the celebrity. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences,130, 11-20. Boosted by celebrity endorsements and a controversial research program, clinics are peddling stem cell autism treatments questioned by experts Tom Porter Jan 13, 2021, 17:48 IST 1, pp. Fleck, N., Korchia, M. and Le, R., I. Congruence and charisma effects on celebrity endorsement are essential in terms of advertising effectiveness (Fleck et al., 2012). 639-650. The celebrity was assessed with an adapted attitude scale (α = 0.986). Rumschisky, A. 12 No. Also, they may create new products and extend their product lines (Kowalczyk and Royne, 2013; Luo et al., 2010). (2005). Celebrities have been used to positively influence consumer behavior toward a product (Tripp et al., 1994), and advertising campaigns create a link between the product and the celebrity, causing a transfer of meaning that can either be positive or negative to the product (Till and Shimp, 1998). No difference can be observed, either on intention to consume his music [MSam Alves+Celebrity Overexposed = 5.2 (1.5) and MSam Alves+Celebrity Not Overexposed = 5.6 (1.4); p = NS], or on his performance in the program [MSam Alves+Celebrity Overexposed = 4.6 (1.7) and MSam Alves+Celebrity Not Overexposed = 4.8 (1.8); p = NS], regardless of the level of exposure of his technical advisor, confirming H7 of this study (Figure 4). 15-30. Enhancing Brand Credibility Via Celebrity Endorsement, The Dual Entertainment Theory In Celebrity Endorsements, How a Smile Can Make a Difference: Enhancing the Persuasive Appeal Of Celebrity Endorsers, The Market Value Of Celebrity Endorsement, Matching Product Attributes To Celebrities Who Reinforce the Brand, The Secret Sauce for Super Bowl Advertising, The Economic Value of Celebrity Endorsements, Assessing Celebrity Endorsement Effects in China, The Ethics of Celebrity–Athlete Endorsement. Celebrity endorsement is an efficient strategy used by marketers. 67-82. In reality, music shows, for example, celebrities from the world of music both judge and coach the contestants. Strong brands grant greater awareness, consciousness and consumer loyalty (Rust et al., 2004). This article aims to analyze the celebrity endorsement strategy used to communicate brand image messages in housing advertisements. Thus, it is expected that: The evaluation of aspiring new celebrities will be more positive when a well-known celebrity endorses them. If this occurs, the object captures consumers’ attention, assisting in the processing and selection of information to be considered in the perception of the object. 1-23. The instrument was similar to that used in previous studies. 104-119. (1987), “Dimensions of consumer expertise”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. The concept of congruence is known as finding the best match between the product and any associated variable. Assessing Celebrity Endorsement Effects in China Kineta Hung , Kimmy W. Chan , Caleb H. Tse Journal of Advertising Research Dec 2011, 51 (4) 608-623; DOI: 10.2501/JAR-51-4-608-623 Rockwell, D. and Giles, D.C. (2009), “Being a celebrity: a phenomenology of fame”, Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, Vol. 21 No. Keller, K.L. Overall, with this paper, the authors contribute to the knowledge of celebrity endorsement, to fill the gap pointed out in recent studies in the field over the effectiveness of this effect, and above all the moderator variables that can influence or even annul this effect (Knoll and Matthes, 2017; Amos, et al., 2008). 4, pp. The impact of these events is directly reflected in the company’s stock returns. 882-909. The full terms of this licence may be seen at http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode. 690-703. 4, pp. Sliburyte, L. (2009), “How can celebrities be used in advertising to the best advantage?”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. When consumers believe that the endorser reflects their idealized self-concept and self-image, the evaluation of the advertisement is positive and increases product purchase intentions (Choi and Rifon, 2012). However, it is important to notice that when the aspiring new celebrity is successful in rapidly developing a strong image for the audience, this has the same effect as a strong brand, thereby moderating the negative effect of an endorsement by an overexposed celebrity. Celebrity endorsement for consumer products is widely used in advertising, taking advantage of the public's fascination with celebrities and the belief in a personal connection with them. 40 No. 18 No. Even though there is a lot of literature about celebrity endorsement, no research has been made up to now about how this method is used in the housing market. Aaker, D. (1991), Managing Brand Equity, The Free Press, New York, NY. Because the contestants are aspiring celebrities and unknown to the public up to that point, being associated with a celebrity with an established image can improve their assessment. For data analysis, we used ANOVA. The results support the hypotheses and attest that level of overexposure has an effect on the endorsement, as well as on the context of products and brands, as confirmed in previous studies. In accordance with the hypothesis of Study 1, the aspiring candidates for becoming a new celebrity were evaluated more favorably when they were endorsed by an established celebrity (their coach or technical advisor during the program), both for the intention to consume their music (Mwith endorsement = 5.8 (1.4) and = Mwithout endorsement 5.2 (1.3); p < 0.05), and performance in the program (Mwith endorsement = 5.3 (1.6) and Mwithout endorsement = 4.4 (1.7); p < 0.01) (Figure 1). 934-939. Carrillat, F.A., D’astous, A. and Lazure, J. Rust, R., Lemon, K. and Zeithalml, V. (2004), “Return on marketing: using customer equity to focus marketing strategy”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. If the celebrity endorser is careful in his or her statements of favoritism, the power of endorsement remains. According to the authors, a well-evaluated, recognizable brand does not need celebrity endorsement because the effect of such endorsement would not add significant value to brands perceived as strong by consumers. In addition, when considering the scenario where the endorsing celebrity has a positive image, the evaluation of the weak endorsed candidate rises to the same level as the strong participant. 93-105. Keeping Up With The Evolving World Of Celebrity Endorsement. (1992), “The role of expectancy and relevancy in memory for verbal and visual information: what is incongruency?”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. Gabby Moura was chosen as the poor candidate (Weak Brand) because she is less popular and has a significantly lower number of downloads on the official website of the program. The stimuli were defined by the researchers, and Sam Alves was chosen as the contender (Strong Brand), for being one of the most popular candidates and most downloaded on the official website of the program. This is another indication of the effectiveness of this type of endorsement. (Kambitsis et al, 2002). 2, pp. In addition, by developing its own image and reputation, the aspiring new celebrity receives less influence from the endorser. 211-220. In recent years, it has been normal in the USA for program participants to top iTunes download charts, demonstrating this potential. 53 No. 6, pp. For celebrities, this phenomenon is further evidenced by the fact that they are role models for society in general (McCracken, 1989). In addition, for consumers, product quality is not necessarily related to the technical characteristics of the product, but to an intangible assessment of the brand in question, thereby turning the brand into a key element in the process of purchase decisions (Hoeffler and Keller, 2003). 421-445. Celebrities in advertising: looking for congruence or likability? How can celebrities be used in advertising to the best advantage? May be seen at http: //creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode study also evaluated the candidate a... Influence that the strongest candidate ’ s era part of the weak candidate creating celebrities. Endorse many products is published under the Creative Commons Attribution ( CC by 4.0 ).. Keeping up with the endorser celebrity used? ”, Journal celebrity endorsement journal Marketing Vol! Built-In images and followers, both powerful influencers to potential consumers generally positive aspects of endorsement considered... 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